We collected SARS-CoV-2 epidemiologic and testing information and estimated the size of the groups to be tested in all Canadian provinces (as of July 17, 2020, no active cases of COVID-19 existed in Canadaâs territories, so they were not considered) (Appendix 1, Table e1). The status quo testing approach from July 8 to 17, 2020 â 41 751 tests per day across 488 sampling centres â cost an estimated $2.4 million per day ($67.8 million per month), and required 755 nurses, 213 nursing assistants, 172 other health care professionals, 3261 clerical and nonclinical staff, and 721 laboratory staff (5122 personnel total). Pooling samples 4:1 could reduce reagents and laboratory technician time by nearly 70%. Documentation de l'enregistrement numérisée. Listes nominatives de recensement de population numérisées, Registres paroissiaux et de l'état civil numérisés, Plans du cadastre napoléonien et rénové numérisés, Série W. Fonds de l'Institut national de la Statistique et des études économiques (INSEE). BACKGROUND: Testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is largely passive, which impedes epidemic control. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Documentation hypothécaire numérisée. Table reflects only those months for which there was trade. Using a binomial distribution with these parameters, we ran 1000 simulations in R (version 3.6.3) over a 2-year period. People at increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 are unlikely to seek testing unless symptoms develop. Timothy Evans is Executive Director of the COVID-19 Immunity Task Force. Consultez la page dédiée au suivi du chantier, Vous êtes ici : Rechercher > Consulter les archives numérisées > Listes nominatives de recensement de population numérisées. 2. As shown in Table 1 and Table 2, systematic contact tracing and testing in addition to the status quo required 47 353 tests per day. Costs, human resources and laboratory capacity for each strategy implemented across Canada are shown in Table 1 and Table 2, and for each province in Appendix 1 (Table e8). l and 2 in the said Township lying to west of Grand River, and that part of concession No. GLPI ITSM is a software for business powered by open source technologies. This form of sampling would be more acceptable â particularly to children, a key consideration when schools reopen â and has excellent sensitivity.45â50 Saliva samples also eliminate the need for nasopharyngeal swabs, a trained health care professional to perform sampling, and the use of costly and scarce PPE. If groups are found to have a low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, routine surveillance testing would be essential to rapidly respond to increases. ; DÃ©partement de mÃ©dicine social et preventive (Brisson), UniversitÃ© Laval, QuÃ©bec, Que. Mobile teams would visit health care facilities with â¥ 5 employees, essential businesses with â¥ 20 employees, and all schools; all others (including contacts) would be referred to existing sampling centres. For more than 2,000 years, the Chadian Basin has been inhabited by agricultural and sedentary people. Niger is a developing country, which consistently ranks near the bottom in the United Nations' Human Development Index (HDI); it was ranked 187th of 188 countries for 2015 and 189th out of 189 countries in the 2018 and 2019 reports. Adresses et horaires des Archives départementales et associations généalogiques du Puy-de-Dôme Noms de famille les plus populaires dans le Puy-de-Dôme W. Alton Russell is funded by a Stanford Interdisciplinary Graduate Fellowship. We evaluated group sizes of 10 to 1000 with daily risks of infection of 1 per 100 000 to 1 per 100 (assuming a communicability period of 10 days;44 these daily risks approximate population prevalence estimates of 0.01% to 10%, respectively). Systematic contact tracing and testing would increase personnel needs 1.2-fold and monthly costs to $78.9 million. 2002; 8 :427–9 10.3201/eid0804.000413 [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Cross Ref ] We performed 1-way sensitivity analysis for costs, human resource inputs and estimated number of contacts for strategies 1 and 4. We posited that systematic tracing and testing of contacts would remain a priority â as it is with other infectious diseases42 â so we assumed this would continue. Active testing of groups at increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 in Canada: costs and human resource needs, Variation in government responses to COVID-19, Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford, Our ongoing list of how countries are reopening, and which ones remain under lockdown, Scenario analysis update: COVID-19 pandemic and oil price shocks, Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer, World economic outlook update: a crisis like no other, an uncertain recovery, Out to regain footing, Trump shifts virus focus to economy. The Deepest Hole On Earth Was Permanently Sealed After Finding Mysterious Fossil Ad Maternity Week ‘The Wilds’ Renewed for Season 2 at Amazon Variety ... 17,534.63 -118.31-0.67%. Pour en savoir plus, consultez les informations pratiques. Thank you, America, for your participation in Census 2000. Consultez l'instrument de recherche complet du Recensement de population. These resource and population size estimates are useful for other jurisdictions seeking to implement active testing strategies for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, unused capacity could be diverted to testing entire groups with higher prevalence more frequently and rapidly. At 592,800 square kilometres (228,900 sq mi), Madagascar is the world's 47th largest country, the 2nd largest island country and the fourth-largest island. The fees were received and the work performed after initial submission of the present manuscript. Surveillance testing in population samples other than contacts would cost 5% of the cost of a universal approach to testing at-risk populations. Saliva-based sampling would reduce costs by 25%â30% and nursing and clerical resource needs by about 20%. C-SPAN.org gives you access to C-SPAN's daily coverage of Washington and more than 200,000 hours of extensively indexed and archived C-SPAN video. Month We used a strict definition for essential workers. Statistics Canada data41 and provincial reports provided estimates of the number of primary and secondary schools and number of students and employees. Addeddate 2012-08-09 15:35:22 Call-number 92N0041XPF Identifier 199692N0041XPF1996fra Identifier-ark ark:/13960/t0qr6102j Ocr ABBYY FineReader 8.0 Pages Dans le cadre des mesures de lutte contre la propagation du coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on CMAJ. Latest breaking news, including politics, crime and celebrity. We assumed sampling could be done at existing sampling centres by nurses or onsite by mobile teams. Are we ready? Sub-district Number. Pour en savoir plus, consultez les informations pratiques Toute l'équipe des Archives départementales du Puy-de-Dôme vous souhaite de belles fêtes de fin d'année. 1 - Comprising those parts of concessions Nos. Start studying RACE (part 1). Constantine (Arabic: قسنطينة Qusanṭīnah), also spelled Qacentina or Kasantina, is the capital of Constantine Province in northeastern Algeria.During Roman times it was called Cirta and was renamed "Constantina" in honor of emperor Constantine the Great.It was the capital of the French department of Constantine until 1962. Explore the Billion Dollar Startup Club Un tableau listera l'ensemble des … Giorgia Sulis is funded by a Richard H. Tomlinson Doctoral Fellowship. The country lies mostly between latitudes 12°S and 26°S, and longitudes 43°E and 51°E. Registres matricules numérisés. Changing laboratory capacity requirements across strategies, with attendant changes in total human resources (health care professionals, clerical staff and laboratory staff). Jonathon Campbell and Dick Menzies drafted the manuscript. We separately calculated downstream costs of repeat testing and contact tracing and testing for each strategy. Interpreting diagnostic tests for SARS-CoV-2, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Testing in Ottawa now open to anyone with COVID-19 symptoms, Can I get tested for COVID-19? Les listes nominatives par commune et par famille ont été établies à partir de 1836 en application de la circulaire du ministre de l'Intérieur du 10 avril 1836 précisant que «le recensement à faire dans chaque commune doit comprendre les individus de tout âge et de tout sexe, habitant ou domiciliés dans la commune, même ceux qui en seraient temporairement absents. ; Department of Management Science and Engineering (Russell), Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.; Department of Pediatrics (Oh), Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea; Department of Epidemiology (Bastos), Social Medicine Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Department of Global Health and Social Medicine (Law), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. Yet, the approach to testing has largely been passive,23,24 placing the onus to be tested on the individual. 1,598 Followers, 356 Following, 316 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from Auto Moto Officiel (@automotoofficiel) RESULTS: During July 8â17, 2020, across all provinces in Canada, an average of 41 751 RT-PCR tests were performed daily; we estimated this required 5122 personnel and cost $2.4 million per day ($67.8 million per month). By initiating surveillance testing immediately, evidence-based decisions on further testing entire groups could be made as capacity is built. We then classified each of these occupations as being at high risk of interpersonal or public contact (Appendix 1, Table e3). For each group, we estimated costs, human resource needs and laboratory capacity associated with implementing active testing strategies that were additional to the status quo. Costs, human resources and laboratory capacity required when conducting testing of at-risk populations with systematic contact tracing and testing are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. This strategy also appears affordable compared with the $169.2 billion committed by the federal government as a response to the pandemic as of June 2020. To inform implementation of active testing strategies, we developed a conceptual framework for testing that consisted of 6 stages, which was used for each of the 5 groups: 1) scheduling, 2) sampling, 3) test transport, 4) laboratory RT-PCR analysis, 5) communication of results and 6) acting on results (e.g., contact tracing). These included costs of materials (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE], nasopharyngeal swabs, reagents), personnel and transportation. The Regional Municipality of Peel (also known as the Region of Peel or Peel Region) is a regional municipality in Southern Ontario, Canada.It consists of three municipalities to the west and northwest of Toronto: the cities of Mississauga, Brampton, and the town of Caledon, each of which spans its full east-west width. Innovative programs to expand testing, like the Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics (RADx) program in the United States,63 are also under way. From these simulations, we calculated the 10th, 25th and 50th percentile of the time to first infection (see Appendix 1 for code). Table 1 and Table 2 detail human resource needs, laboratory capacity and costs of testing all members of at-risk populations on a single occasion. Les listes numérisées correspondent à la collection constituée par l'exemplaire envoyé à la préfecture par les communes et conservée dans la sous-série 6M aux Archives départementales. This testing approach should be an integral component of a broad strategy to allow all Canadians to return safely to work and school. Six NBER working papers distributed this week investigate the economic and health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Even if repeated, these costs represent a small fraction of the $169.2 billion in Canadian federal fiscal response to the COVID-19 pandemic (as of June 2020). Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (Campbell, Oxlade, Fregonese, Menzies, Oh, Bastos, Sulis); Faculty of Medicine (Campbell, Menzies, Winters, Sulis, Uppal, Yanes-Lane, Lan), McGill University; McGill International TB Centre (Campbell, Oxlade, Fregonese, Menzies, Bastos, Sulis, Law); Department of Economics (Laszlo) and School of Population and Global Health (Evans), McGill University, MontrÃ©al, Que. • Diffusion sur le site internet des registres de plus de 75 ans en application de la loi n° 2016-1321 du 7 octobre 2016 pour une République numérique, décret n° 2018-1117 du 10 décembre 2018 • Consultation en salle de lecture jusqu’en 1975, conformément à la dérogation générale du 4 décembre 2009 (JORF n° 0288 du 12 décembre 2009 page 21505 texte n° 48). 61° 37° Sun. Clerical staff needs increased 1.2-fold to 3920 persons, and total monthly costs were $78.9 million (i.e., an additional $11.1 million per month over the status quo). For at-risk populations, incremental laboratory capacity needs are shown, assuming systematic tracing and testing of contacts is implemented and continued; total personnel are shown for these same at-risk populations assuming systematic tracing and testing of contacts is implemented and continued. For contacts, other studies have estimated impacts.75â77 It is possible some people in our strategies are already being tested (e.g., some contacts) and other groups that may require testing (e.g., travellers, visitors to long-term care) were not considered. BACKGROUND: Testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is largely passive, which impedes epidemic control. Conducted over a month, testing all hospital employees would require 1823 additional personnel, costing $29.0 million; testing all community health care workers and persons in long-term care facilities would require 11 074 additional personnel and cost $124.8 million; and testing all essential employees would cost $321.7 million, requiring 25 965 added personnel. We estimated sample sizes at the 95% confidence level, adjusting for finite sample size,43 and assuming the cluster size was 10% of individuals from each school or facility. 1. Les listes nominatives recensent, pour chaque commune, les habitants du bourg puis ceux des hameaux selon un ordre topographique : … Les recensements ont lieu tous les 5 ans à l'exception des périodes de guerre (recensement effectué en 1872 au lieu de 1871, et absence de recensement en 1916). We conceptualized 5 groups who should be prioritized for active testing strategies based on expected prevalence of infection with SARS-CoV-2 (Appendix 1, Figure e1, available at www.cmaj.ca/lookup/doi/10.1503/cmaj.201128/tab-related-content). We employed a microcosting approach for all recurrent costs (2020 Canadian dollars), using a health system perspective. Copyright 2020, Joule Inc. or its licensors. Interventions addressing inefficiencies, including saliva-based sampling and pooling samples, could reduce costs by 40% and personnel by 20%. Puy-de-Dôme (63) : 6 494 017 archives numérisées et indexées. Nicholas Winters (Award #284837) is funded by a doctoral fellowship from the Fonds de Recherche du QuÃ©bec â SantÃ©. We examined changes in costs and human resource needs if testing uptake (consent) was 90%, 80% or 60%. Much of how SARS-CoV-2 sampling and contact tracing is performed was derived from Quebec during the first wave of the pandemic, although this was validated with other settings.69â73 There is heterogeneity among provincial health systems, and the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 is changing rapidly. Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Active testing strategies can identify a high proportion of people with SARS-CoV-2 infection and minimal or no symptoms, who are currently an important source of community transmission. The earliest of these were the legendary Sao, known from artifacts and oral histories.The Sao fell to the Kanem Empire, the first and longest-lasting of the empires that developed in Chad's Sahelian strip by the end of the 1st millennium AD. This has had major social and economic consequences. We did not consider costs associated with capacity building and existing infrastructure; nor did we include health system costs beyond testing, such as inpatient or outpatient medical costs, as most people detected would be unlikely to seek care or be detected otherwise. For testing at-risk essential workers, both cost and personnel needs were most sensitive to the time required to obtain samples (Appendix 1, Figure e2). Plans du cadastre napoléonien et rénové numérisés. We aimed to estimate costs, human resources and laboratory capacity required for active testing strategies to detect SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR in groups at increased risk of infection in Canada. The demography of France is monitored by the Institut national d'études démographiques (INED) and the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (INSEE). Ethics approval was not required for this study. The approach to preventing transmission from such individuals during the first wave of COVID-19 in Canada was to shut down many activities. In 1-way sensitivity analysis, cost of systematically tracing and testing contacts was most sensitive to RT-PCR reagent cost, and personnel needs were most sensitive to activities related to tracing and scheduling contacts. As workplaces and schools reopen after the first wave of COVID-19 in Canada, testing priorities and strategies are needed to prevent surges in community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. 98-316-X2016001. Competing interests: Alton Russell has provided consulting services to Terumo BCT, a medical device company, unrelated to and outside the submitted work; Terumo BCT does not manufacture diagnostic tests. We do not capture any email address. Mayara Bastos, Federica Fregonese, Nicholas Winters, Jonathon Campbell and Olivia Oxlade are funded through a Canadian Institutes of Health Research grant (#FRD143350). This study assessed needs and outcomes for people with developmental disability (DD) to understand the socioeconomic status of this group prior to implementation of the Accessible Canada Act in June 2019. Olivia Oxlade reports being Associate Scientific Director (Management) for the COVID-19 Immunity Task Force. The region became a crossroads of civilizations. All of the authors contributed to the acquisition and interpretation of data. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for. We defined active testing strategies for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for groups at increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 in all Canadian provinces. We also performed other sensitivity analyses for universal testing. In our simulations, the critical determinant of the frequency of repeat surveillance or universal testing was the daily risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2. Sub-district Name. Analyses considering increased prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in proportional increases to the number of contacts traced and tested in all strategies, but minimally affected cost and human resource needs for strategies in at-risk populations (Appendix 1, Table e12). la salle de lecture est ouverte selon des modalités aménagées. 10,848 were here. Photos. All improvements combined reduced total costs by 40% and personnel needs by 20% for strategies involving at-risk populations. As of June 2020, the Canadian federal fiscal response alone was an estimated $169.2 billion.3 Further, unemployment in June 2020 was 12%4 and real gross domestic product is projected to fall 8.4% in 2020.5 These consequences have led to demands to reopen the economy quickly.6,7, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is primarily used to detect acute SARS-CoV-2.8 Because of capacity constraints, RT-PCR testing was initially reserved for individuals presenting with symptoms consistent with COVID-19.9â11 As capacity expanded and the initial wave of the epidemic was brought under control, however, testing was subsequently made available to people with minimal or no symptoms.12 Modelling studies have estimated such individuals account for more than 50% of community transmission.13â16 This is supported by studies that indicate viral shedding begins before symptom onset17,18 and case series that document substantial transmission from asymptomatic people.19â22 Thus, testing of people with minimal or no symptoms appears to be an essential part of a comprehensive strategy to reopen the economy without creating epidemic recrudescence.16. Our findings place into context the substantial response needed to ensure regular testing can be provided to populations who need it most. In contrast, if daily SARS-CoV-2 infection risk is 1 per 10 000 (population prevalence of about 0.1%), then groups of 100 or fewer would be more than 90% likely to remain infection free for about 4 weeks or more, suggesting testing should be repeated monthly. independently classified occupations as essential using Quebecâs stringent definition from March 2020.38 Using a published algorithm,39 validated with O*Net,40 we classified essential occupations as those not able to be performed at home. Data sharing: All data used to inform this manuscript are available in the main text, supplemental material, and online within our Excel tool (https://zenodo.org/record/3964991). The population of the U.S. on April 1, 2000 was 281,421,906 [PDF 2M]. Data from Statistics Canada provided the number of acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities,28,29 the number of employees for each in June 2020,4,30 and the number of residents of long-term care facilities.31,32 Without an estimate of the number of community health care workers in Canada,33 we used American data34â36 and assumed the number employed in Canada was proportional to population. We did not include capital costs of scaling capacity (e.g., equipment, training) or existing infrastructure. Legault is gradually reopening Quebec. Surveillance testing â for which capacity already exists â is an important and less costly approach to understanding the extent and dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in at-risk populations. In Canada, the populations targeted for active testing are large â some 4 million people in hospitals, community health care, long-term care and essential businesses, and 6 million within schools â but others have advocated for a similarly ambitious approach.57â59 In other countries, such as South Korea,60 Hong Kong61 and Germany,62 testing capacity was rapidly expanded to help control the initial epidemic wave. Listes nominatives de recensement de population numérisées. Les recensements ont lieu tous les 5 ans à l'exception des périodes de guerre (recensement effectué en 1872 au lieu de 1871, et absence de recensement en 1916). Estimated costs for each round of surveillance testing were $2.3 million for hospital employees, $6.6 million for community health care workers and employees and residents of long-term care facilities; $14.4 million for other essential workers; and $45.6 million within schools. Finally, testing all 6 012 144 students and employees in primary and secondary schools over 1.5 months would require an added 20 956 health care professionals, 22 950 clerical staff and 2462 laboratory staff, costing $816.0 million. As of July 17, 2020, there were 488 SARS-CoV-2 testing sites; the estimated RT-PCR laboratory capacity was 80 750 tests per day. Find stories, updates and expert opinion. We estimated additional costs and human resource needs if whole-blood sampling for serologic testing with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was done concurrently with sampling for RT-PCR. Reduced acceptance of testing resulted in parallel reductions in human resource requirements and costs (Appendix 1, Table e11). Over the period of July 8â17, 2020, 417 508 tests for SARS-CoV-2 were performed and 3501 (0.84%) were positive27 (Appendix 1, Table e2). To sign up for email alerts or to access your current email alerts, enter your email address below: Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. Systematic tracing and testing of 16 contacts per person given a new diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection marginally increases testing costs and could be accomplished with current laboratory capacity. Implementing interventions to reduce costs and improve efficiency were predicted to substantially affect resources required for universal testing (Table 1, Table 2). No other competing interests were declared. We estimated costs, human resources and laboratory capacity required to test people in each group or to perform surveillance testing in random samples. Performing serologic sampling and testing alongside RT-PCR cost an additional $31 per person, based on an assumed manufacturersâ cost of $10 per test (Appendix 1, Table e11).
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